Bordeaux is a port city on the Garonne River in the Gironde department in southwestern France.

The municipality (commune) of Bordeaux proper has a population of 243,626 (2012). Together with its suburbs and satellite towns Bordeaux is the centre of the Bordeaux Métropole, which with 749,595 inhabitants and 1,178,335 in the Metropolitan Area, the fifth largest in France. It is the capital of the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region, as well as the prefecture of the Gironde department. Its inhabitants are called “Bordelais” (for men) or “Bordelaises” (women). The term “Bordelais” may also refer to the city and its surrounding region.

The city’s titles are “La Perle d’Aquitaine” (The Pearl of Aquitaine), and “La Belle Endormie” (Sleeping Beauty) in reference to the old centre which had black walls due to pollution. Nowadays, this is not the case. In fact, a part of the city, Le Port de La Lune, was almost completely renovated. Bordeaux is the city which has the highest number of preserved historical buildings in France, except for Paris.

Bordeaux is the world’s major wine industry capital. It is home to the world’s main wine fair, Vinexpo, while the wine economy in the metro area takes in 14.5 billion euros each year. Bordeaux wine has been produced in the region since the 8th century. The historic part of the city is on the UNESCO World Heritage List as “an outstanding urban and architectural ensemble” of the 18th century.